The hand making of clogs with leather uppers and wooden soles. Soles are either carved entirely by hand or a combination of band saw and hand tools. This entry does not include the production of factory-made soles or the assembly of pre-made parts.
|Craft category||Wood, leather|
|Historic area of significance||At its height it was primarily an urban craft, especially industrial centres in the north of England, but present UK-wide.|
|Area currently practised||Cardiff, Herefordshire, Sheffield, North Wales, West Yorkshire and Lancashire.|
|Origin in the UK||Roman|
|Current no. of professionals (main income)||2 Hand carved clog makers
3 Clog makers using power tools, or a combination of power tools and hand finishing
|Current no. of professionals (sideline to main income)
|Current no. of trainees||1 trainee in hand carved clogs|
|Current total no. serious amateur makers
|Current total no. of leisure makers
|Minimum no. of craftspeople required|
Traditional clogs developed as a strong type of footwear that was better in water and heat than conventional leather-soled footwear. They were often worn in heavy labour, but today the variants are considered for everyday wear. The interest in clogs ranges from the fashion industry to the general public and they are often still worn by factory workers due to their durability and comfort.
Clogs are still used within the UK folk dancing and folk music communities. One of the largest markets for clogs nowadays is as leisure wear for clog step dancers and Morris dancers.
They are historically working-class footwear. This almost certainly contributed to the rapid decline of the craft in the C20th: most of those who could afford not to wear clogs chose not to, and the association with poverty – and attendant snobbery around clogs – persisted. Sufficient time has elapsed that this perception is held by few nowadays; but clogs have never recovered a role as ‘mainstream’ footwear.
Most makers will use some combination of bandsaw and powered sanding/grinding machinery for shaping of soles; and a router or spindle moulder or similar apparatus to cut the ‘grip’ (the rebate into which the leather is nailed). Traditional clog knives may be used, to varying degrees. Leather uppers are typically machine-stitched but most practitioners of the craft will be familiar with hand-stitching techniques too.
In the UK, clogs always have a leather upper and a wooden sole. Any local variations were rather homogenized in the Victorian era, although a lot of Welsh slippers in SW Wales and toe shapes still varied. It was said that you could ‘tell a man’s village by the cut of his clogs’.
- Patten making
- Last making
Ancillary activities including clog iron manufacture and toe-tin manufacture were once carried on as separate commercial operations: this practice is now extinct and clog makers have to make their own such items, or rely on old stock.
Issues affecting the viability of the craft
- Market issues: It’s not possible to compete on price with machined standard sized clog soles – the only future is for top end bespoke and orthopaedic clogs, or clogs which are optimised for dancing
- Supply of components.
- Skill shortages: not only specifically in the craft itself, but also in more generic craft skills which may act as ‘feeder’ skills to clog making. Undergraduate courses in woodworking, for example, are increasingly scarce
- Last-making is currently ‘Endangered’. If clog lasts were to become difficult to obtain, this would be a problem.
- Association of Polelathe Turners and Greenwood Workers
Craftspeople currently known
Hand carved clog makers:
- Jeremy Atkinson, Full time clog maker, Herefordshire (fully hand-carved soles) – was taught by Hywell Davies and has travelled in Spain and France researching European clog-making traditions.
- Simon Brock,
- Simon Brock, Full time clog maker, Sheffield (band saw cut soles and hand-carved soles) – uses a bandsaw to rough the shape, with routine use of stock knives for some shaping and all hollowing and a router to create the grip. Following two awards from the HCA in 2019, Simon has learned to fully hand-cut soles with Jeremy Atkinson and is now able to offer hand carved Alder soles.
- Geraint Parfitt, Full time clog maker and demonstator at St Fagans National History Museum, Cardiff (fully hand carved soles using traditional hand tools and leather work all hand cut and stitched) Trained with Hywel Davies and Jeremy Atkinson and trained leather working with saddler Peter Mason.
Clog makers using a combination of machine and hand skills:
- Mike Cahill (band saw cut soles, finished with a stock knife)
- John Fox (band saw cut soles)
- Phil Howard, Full time clog maker, West Yorkshire (band saw cut soles)
- Robin Shepherd – Greenwood Clogs was founded in 1925 by Harry Greenwood on the outskirts of Haworth and is now run by Robin Shepherd from a home workshop in Laycock, West Yorkshire. Clogs are individually made to measure. Farmers boot uppers are made using a treadle sewing machine and shoe type clogs are hand stitched veg tanned leather (Soles are made with a combination of bandsaw and stock knives).
- Colne Valley Museum – carries out clog making demonstrations and has The Clogging Collection which is a replica of a clog shop discovered near Slaithwaite.
Trefor Owen, based in Cricieth, Gwynedd, has now retired but maintains his workshop. JoJo Wood, based in Birmingham, is learning the craft of clog making with hand-cut soles. Scotland’s last clogmaker Godfrey Wimpenny Smith died in 2015. Brian Moulden is an amateur maker in North Wales who occasionally demonstrates.
- Clogs and clogmaking (Shire Album) – and associated bibliography
- Dobson, Bob, Concerning Clogs
- Vigeon, Evelyn, Clog or Wooden Soled Shoes