The working of pewter (an alloy of tin and copper or bismuth) by casting, moulding, spinning, pressing, rolling or hand forming.
|Historic area of significance||Sheffield, Birmingham, London, Bewdley|
|Area currently practised||Sheffield and Birmingham|
|Origin in the UK||Roman|
|Current no. of professionals (main craft)||201-500|
|Current no. of professionals (sideline to main craft)
|Current no. of trainees||c.20|
|Current total no. serious amateur makers
|Current total no. of leisure makers
|Minimum no. of craftspeople required||101-200|
Pewter working is one of the oldest manufacturing industries in the world which is still in commercial production and dates from the bronze age. However little archaeological evidence exists due to the low melting point, meaning old pieces were melted down when fashion changed rather than discarded. The industry was significant in the Roman period and certainly existed in the UK at that time.
The Pewterers Company was established in 1348. For two centuries from 1474 pewter was unrivalled as a material for plates, dishes, drinking vessels and similar ware. From the sixteenth century the indispensable preliminary for a Freeman setting up as a Master Pewterer and opening his own shop was to record his ‘touch’ or trade mark on large pewter sheets retained by the Company in the Hall. The early touch plates were lost in the Great Fire; the five that survive today record the marks of Master Pewterers from then until the beginning of the nineteenth century when the Company no longer exercised the power to enforce this regulation. These plates provide a unique record of pewterers of the period, containing over 1,000 individual marks and are of great historical value. A new touch plate was introduced in March 2000.
The prosperity of the trade may be said to have reached its zenith in the late seventeenth century. Thereafter, partly because society’s drinking habits changed following the introduction of tea to this country and partly because the industrial revolution introduced new techniques and the use of alternative materials, the trade steadily declined. By the late eighteenth century the number of those in the Company who actually followed the trade was small. Pewter underwent a brief renaissance during the Art Nouveau movement.
Pewter working is historically associated with London and Bewley, with other centres in Birmingham, Sheffield and parts of Cornwall where tin was mined.
Pewter craftsmen fall into different skill sets, with craftsmen typically specialising in a single skill. These include: alloying, rolling, spinning, soldering, metalsmithing, buffing, polishing, casting, mould making, engraving and finishing. Further details can be found here.
The form of pewter work carried out in Sheffield is historically unique to Sheffield in that the pewter is worked from sheets rather than cast in moulds.
Issues affecting the viability of the craft
The industry is slowing moving away from traditional production (within factories, batch production and individual skills) to a more craft based model of individual designer makers having to be multi-skilled. The surviving factories are now starting to tap into that designer maker resource more for some of their production needs.
Declining demand for pewter product – pewter is not as fashionable as it was (although its popularity is increasing with promotions such as Pewter Live).
Competition from abroad – pewter ware is labour intensive to produce (although it is still produced on fairly large scale with three family run factories (staff of 5-20 at each) and several independent craftspeople.)
Craftspeople currently known
- A E Williams, Birmingham
- Steve Millingham
- Richard Abdy, Wentworth Pewter
- Ed Glover, Glover & Smith
- Ella McIntosh
A list of existing pewter manufactures can be found on the website of the Association of British Pewter Workers.