Engine turning (guilloché)
The mechanical engraving of an intricate and repetitive pattern onto an underlying surface using an engine turning machine.
|Status||Endangered (see ‘Other information’ for further details)|
|Historic area of significance|
|Area currently practised||UK|
|Origin in the UK||16th century|
|Minimum no. of craftspeople required|
|Current no. of trainees||0|
|Current no. of skilled craftspeople||6-10 (see ‘Other information’ for further details)|
|Current total no. of craftspeople||6-10|
Engine turning is the mechanical engraving of an intricate and repetitive pattern onto an underlying surface, often metal, using an engine turning machine. The machines were first used in the sixteenth century on soft materials such as ivory and wood, before being used on metals such as gold and silver in the eighteenth century, and later translucent enamel was applied over guilloche metal. Today it is also possible to engine turn on acrylics and plastics. Engine turning can be used on its own or underneath translucent enamels on items such as cufflinks, watch dials, pendants etc.
Issues affecting the viability of the craft
Shortage of equipment: The manufacture of engine turning machines came to an almost complete halt in the mid-twentieth century. Many machines were melted down for the war effort, and so those machines which survive today tend to be quite old. There are very few spare parts available, so people need engineering skills in order to make what the parts they need.
Market issues: Engine turning is extremely time consuming and is therefore very expensive for consumers. It is very difficult to make a living from engine turning – most people do it part time. It is difficult and unfair to encourage people into a craft with no money.
Changing tastes: Although it is possible to design in a very contemporary way, there is a perception that guilloche is very old fashioned.
Methods of working: Historically, engine turning was done in a trade-work context, with engine turners doing the work for other people. Today, there is very little demand for turning for others and the trade work is disappearing, so craftspeople either need to find new ways of turning alongside other things, or become designer-makers who make the whole item. Furthermore, engine turning is horribly unforgiving which can put people off, especially on gold and silver trade-work – very easy to ruin a piece after many hours of other people’s work.
Public awareness: There is little public awareness of engine turning.
Training issues: No one has an apprentice. The Birmingham Jewellery School has a couple of machines and someone comes in to show show the students what can be done.
Craftspeople currently known
Phil Bedford – does not do trade work.
Status: It is likely that engine turning was always niche trade and was never very big. The craft is considered to be ‘endangered’ and is probably doing better than it has been – not in terms of total numbers, but in the fact that there are a few younger people involved.
Number of skilled craftspeople: There are probably 6-7 craftspeople doing engine turning on a trade-work basis for other people, although many of them are nearing retirement age, and some firms are doing it in-house, such as the watchmakers Charles Frodsham & Co. Ltd. and Roger W. Smith. There are also some amateurs who have machines and use them.