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Rush matting


The HCA Red List of Endangered Crafts


Rush matting


Hand weaving and sewing rushes into mats, log baskets, tableware, hats and bags.


Status Endangered
Craft category
Historic area of significance Bedfordshire and Cambridgeshire
Area currently practised Bedfordshire, Cambridgeshire and Northamptonshire
Origin in the UK Rush work dates back many centuries in the UK. Remnants have been found in mound dwellings
Current no. of professionals (main income) 6-10
Current no. of professionals (sideline to main income)
Current no. of trainees
Current total no. serious amateur makers
Current total no. of leisure makers
Minimum no. of craftspeople required



It is likely that most people who lived near a river with rush growing would have worked it. Historically, there is a significant tradition in Bedfordshire where the rush was harvested all along the river Great Ouse by a team and taken back to Pavenham to be worked. Their matting went into the houses of Parliament and major cathedrals. Their baskets were sold in Harrods and other major shops.

After the First World War the tradition died for a while but was resurrected in the 1940s by a Mrs Morgan on a very small scale. Felicity Irons BEM took over the rush cutting from Tom Arnold in Holywell whose family had been cutting rush since the 1700s. When he died the craft would have disappeared without Felicity taking it on and continuing the tradition.



  • Plaiting – these can can made with different odd numbers to start e.g. 3 end, 5 end etc. 9 end is often used for matting. It is woven wet and when dry it can be hand sewn with a large needle and jute twine.
  • Check weave
  • Pairing weave
  • Chain pairing
  • Rope making
  • Diagonal checkweave


Local forms




Allied crafts

  • Rush basketry
  • Rush tableware
  • Chair seating


Issues affecting the viability of the craft

  • Recruitment issues: it has become increasingly difficult to recruit people as both rush weavers and rush cutters
  • Raw materials: rush is getting increasingly hard to source and in some cases demand is outstripping supply. Rush is sourced from sustainable sources in the UK rivers and also imported from the Netherlands.


Support organisations


Craftspeople currently known


Other information