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Heritage Crafts and Sussex Heritage Trust support millwrighting trainee

Adam WinsorA trainee millwright has been awarded a grant to help safeguard one of Sussex’s most endangered craft skills.

Heritage Crafts and the Sussex Heritage Trust (SHT) have awarded the grant through the Heritage Crafts’ Endangered Crafts Fund, which was launched in 2019 to increase the likelihood of endangered crafts surviving into the next generation.

Millwright Fred Maillardet and David Pierce will train 18-year-old volunteer miller Adam Winsor to be trainee millwright at Oldland Windmill in West Sussex and Wicken Windmill in Cambridgeshire.

Restoring and maintaining windmills in the UK is presently mainly carried out by an ageing workforce, made up of a few commercial millwrights and a significantly larger number of volunteers with wood and metal working skills and experience on restoring and maintaining mills.

The craft is critically endangered, partly due to a lack of younger people becoming involved. Training and encouraging individuals such as Adam is a valuable opportunity to pass on the endangered craft skills to the next generation.

Adam WinsorIn 2021 Heritage Crafts published the third edition of its groundbreaking Red List of Endangered Crafts, the first research of its kind to rank the UK’s traditional crafts by the likelihood that they will survive into the next generation. The report assessed 244 crafts to ascertain those which are at greatest risk of disappearing, of which four were classified as extinct, 74 as ‘endangered’ and a further 56 as ‘critically endangered’.

The successful project joins five previous Sussex recipients funded through the partnership between Heritage Crafts and SHT, including two flint wallers, a brick maker, a trug maker and a wallpaper maker. Nationally, 42 projects have been funded through the Endangered Crafts Fund since 2019.

Mary Lewis, Heritage Crafts Endangered Crafts Manager, said:

“For many reasons, not least the COVID-19 pandemic, our craft skills are at more risk than ever before. We are delighted to be working in partnership with the Sussex Heritage Trust to address the specific challenges to endangered skills and knowledge in Sussex, a region renowned for its craftsmanship and material heritage.”

Simon Knight DL, Chairman of the Sussex Heritage Trust, said:

“Excellent architecture and design, traditional building skills and craftmanship are an important part of the rich heritage of Sussex. This partnership with Heritage Crafts addresses the particular challenges of these crafts and facilitate the transfer of endangered crafts, building skills and knowledge to the next generation.”

For more information about the Endangered Crafts Fund, email Heritage Crafts Endangered Crafts Manager Mary Lewis at or SHT General Manager, Helen Reeve at

Read the full press release

Millwright training opportunity

MillwrightingDeadline: 1 December 2019

Millwrighting has been identified by the HCA Red List of Endangered Crafts as a critically endangered skill,  and the Society for Protection of Ancient Buildings (SPAB) recognises the urgent need both to train new millwrights, and to encourage and equip experienced craftspeople to work on mills.

Therefore, SPAB is inviting applications for one place on its Craft Fellowship scheme from a craftsperson in any relevant trade who has an interest in mills, and in using and extending their skills to repair and maintain them.

The scheme will follow the existing format of the Craft Fellowship scheme, comprising learning and placements across the country. This is not a complete millwright training programme or apprenticeship, but a way for an experienced craftsperson to acquire specific additional skills to enable them to work on mills. Training extends over a period of nine months and is offered with a bursary to help cover travel and other costs.


The HCA Red List of Endangered Crafts




A mixture of several crafts, but essentially building machines to harness wind, water and animal power to drive machinery.


Status Critically endangered
Craft category Wood, metal
Historic area of significance UK

NB  The millwrighting and associated milling crafts are similarly practiced across NW Europe.

Area currently practised Wherever the surviving mills tend to be – Mainly South Central to North East England for windmills, much of UK for watermills.

There is an urgent need for millwrights in the North of England & Scotland

Origin in the UK 13th century
Current no. of professionals (main income) 11
Current no. of professionals (sideline to main income)
Current no. of trainees 4
Current total no. serious amateur makers
Around 30 volunteers who can and do carry out considerable tasks

NB  This includes a considerable number of millwrights and millers who have responsibility for their mills.

Current total no. of leisure makers
Minimum no. of craftspeople required 20

Many wind and watermills require annual work and every 5-10 years major work to be carried out by a professional millwright



Millwrighting started as soon as humans started to build machines, probably pre-Roman, but developed as the machines and materials did. The introduction of iron was the largest single development. Also the steady development of gear wheel construction was very significant, and the mechanical developments during the industrial revolution.



Millwrights designed the whole mill.  They build in timber, or later metal, make patterns, machine components, make gear teeth, build, repair and dress stones, make and design windmill sails, and make from scratch or repair any part of any mill, from tree or casting to component.


Local forms

Regional differences are important and must be kept. There are variations throughout the country with the type of building, sails, & caps of windmills.




Issues affecting the viability of the craft

  • Business issues: There are issues with skills, raw materials, recruitment, and business viability due to material costs, premises and set up costs.
  • Business issues: Meeting Health and Safety requirements surrounding the work can be challenging and prohibitively expensive.
  • Skills: The number of skilled millwrights are in decline.  The work can be challenging and so recruitment and retention can be an issue.
  • Market: The sector has limited funded with vulnerable buildings often being repaired and maintained by volunteers. Due to the lack of Millwrights there are a number of volunteer and Friends groups who carry out tasks. The volunteer millwrights are vital in that they cover for the lack of general funding for millwrighting, and at those mills where they have long term responsibility they provide important continuity, encouraging the improvement of millwrighting standards & of maintenance.
  • Skills: Millwrighting is a composite of other professions including mechanical engineering/machinery, timber framing, built heritage conservation, watercourse management. food production etc. Very few  millwrights today will have the full complement of skills due to the wide range of different mills to be managed.
  • Sector support: There is no guild/union or recognised qualification
  • Training and recruitment: There is no recognised qualification or standard for Millwrighting.
  • Skills: A lack of knowledge of regional variations and techniques resulting in loss of heritage
  • Ageing workforce: Some of the very experienced Millwrights are nearing retirement with very few entering the profession and the skills are not being passed on

Support organisations


Craftspeople currently known


  • Adam Marriot, Teme Valley Heritage Engineers
  • Richard Seago – working only in Norfolk
  • Paul Kemp
  • Paul Sellwood
  • Tim Whiting
  • Bill Griffiths
  • Malcolm Cooper
  • Neil Medcalf – now retired
  • Derek & Simon Janes
  • Paul Abel
  • Ian Clarke, Winchester – works mainly on water mills
  • Jon McGuiness
  • Bertus Dijkstra (although living in The Netherlands he is prepared to work in the UK, and has repaired fully Upminster Mill, a major project)


  • IJP Building Conservation
  • Dorothea Restorations
  • Traditional Millwrights Ltd
  • Nicholls Hydro Engineering Ltd

Other groupings involving skilled millwrights:

  • Wicken Millwrights (Dave Pearce et al). Current  work confined to Wicken Mill, Gransden Mill, Foxton Mill
  • High Salvington Windmill
  • Oldland Windmill Trust made up of skilled volunteer millers and millwrights.
  • Thelnetham Windmill/Pakenham Watermill (Suffolk Buildings Preservation Trust)


Training Providers

Whilst there are no specific degrees or qualifications in Millwrighting, there are specialised courses available at various levels including Higher National certificates and diplomas, Foundation Degrees and Masters (MSc) Degrees. The Building Crafts College offer a range of  apprenticeships and vocational qualifications in heritage construction. Millwrights may be trained in Mechanical Engineering, Civil Engineering, TImber Framing and other allied skills.

Masters Degree courses are available throughout the UK.  For example, The University of Bath offers a Conservation of Historic Buildings Msc. For direct entry you’ll need to have already achieved a degree in a relevant subject or have completed a foundation degree.

There is a list of accredited courses available via the Institute for Historic Buildings Conservation website.

Apprenticeships – There are no apprenticeships specifically in Millwrighting. A Level 5 Apprenticeship ‘Heritage Construction Specialist’ is currently being developed by the Historic Environment Trailblazer group.

On the job training: Millwrighting companies will usually take on a train their own employees. There is some support available to take on and train new entrants.

  • SPAB Mills Section has funded the SPAB Fellowship for a years’ training of a potential millwright. (2021, 2022 and possibly 2023)
  • Hamish Ogston Foundation / Historic England are supporting some millwright trainees in 2022

Other Provision:  Wicken Mill is providing on-going informal training to new volunteer millwrights. In 2022 – 2023 Oldland and Wicken Mills are providing ‘on the job’ training for a young volunteer millwright, Adam Winsor.  This is with the support of HCA and Sussex Heritage Trust.

Further information on training and education:


Other information

SPAB suggest that at least 20 millwrights need to be trained over the next 5 to 10 years as this is an intense apprenticeship which would take several years to learn all the various skills. Ideally 3 or 4 a year for the foreseeable future would cover this, allowing for some to drop out.

In England there is some provision for funding of major wind and water mill restorations – with central funds from Historic England or, for very big schemes, Lottery funds. However, there is little realistic provision for funding the on-going maintenance of mills in the UK between major overhauls.

Many mills rely on skilled volunteer millwrights, often professional engineers and the like, to carry out major repair and also running repairs. Wicken Windmill was restored from a ruinous state in this way.  Volunteer millwrights and millers continue the maintenance of the mill, with materials funded by sales of flour and donations.

There is an agreed need for on-going support and encouragement of the endangered craft of the professional millwright. The shortage of available funds for mill repairs in general means we must also encourage and support the equally endangered craft of the skilled volunteer miller, so that at least some funds can be earned for heritage mills by the sale of flour. The shortage of funds for mills in general gives added urgency to these needs.



  • Watts, Martin, ‘Millwrighting’ in Crafts in the English Countryside.
  • Wailes, The English Windmill
  • Farries, Essex millers and millwrights, volume 2
  • Freese, Stanley, Mills and Millwrighting – goes into great detail of how to build a windmill, particularly a wooden post mill, giving the types of materials and tools also the methods that should be used.