The HCA Red List of Endangered Crafts




The application of an aqueous surface design onto paper or other items, which can produce patterns similar to smooth marble or other kinds of stone. This entry refers to the making of extremely complex repeatable patterns which require very high levels of skill.


Status Endangered
Craft category
Historic area of significance
Area currently practised UK
Origin in the UK 17th century
Current no. of professionals (main income) 11-20
Current no. of professionals (sideline to main income)
Current no. of trainees
Current total no. serious amateur makers
Current total no. of leisure makers
Minimum no. of craftspeople required



Marbling consists of floating ink or paint on a surface to create a pattern. The colour may be simply dropped on to create random blobs or the ink/paint may be blown or swirled using an implement to create a pattern. A sheet of treated paper is then carefully placed on the paint and the pattern transfers to the paper. The process was first developed in China and Japan, before travelling to Central Asia, India, Iran and Turkey, before reaching Europe in the seventeenth century.

In Europe, marbled paper was used both for book covers as well as for the endpapers. The patterned paper ensured that slight damage due to constant or rough handling wasn’t so obvious than if the cover had been plain.

Marbling became popular as a handicraft in the nineteenth century after the publication of the The Art of Marbling by Charles Woolnough in 1853.



Each sheet of paper produced by marbling is unique and workshops developed a number of different patterns.

The tools and materials used for paper marbling are relatively simple. A watertight tray is filled with a substance that will hold the ink on the surface. Water will do this, but to control the marbling effectively, something more viscous is better. Irish carrageen moss produces a gel which is ideal. One or more colours of paint is then dropped on to the surface and allowed to spread for a random pattern, or combed or twirled to produce more controlled patterns. Paper which has usually been treated with alum is gently laid on the surface and the pattern on the gel transfers to the paper. The paper is then carefully lifted and washed to remove excess colour (Lovett, 2015). See here for an explanation of the process by Jemma Lewis for the Folio Society.


Local forms




  • Marbling of book edges – Commonly seen on large format ledgers which were handmade in 18-19th centuries. They are still made but not with hand-marbled edges but transfer printed. Some of the older, time served apprentice bookbinders are teaching these specialist marbling techniques.


Issues affecting the viability of the craft

  • Rise of digital printing
  • Fewer traditional bookbinders
  • No big marbling houses left to train apprentices
  • Costs of raw materials, specifically the Carragheen moss
  • Marbling from developing countries (India, Malaysia etc) entering UK market at lower prices (fairly recent development)
  • Interest has been/is still increasing due to social media (visual nature of craft helps here) and publicity (Red List), but ultimately if marbling can’t find a more sustainable niche than book-related arts, it may wane again. Especially as digital printed reproductions and cheaper alternatives enter the market in response to interest.


Support organisations


Craftspeople currently known

Individual makers:

Chris Rowlatt has retired in the past three years.

Businesses employing two or more makers:

  • Marshall and Fuller

Cockerell and Son were well-known for their marbled papers, but their studio closed in 2012.


Other information

There now seem to be more workshops available on marbling than in the 1980s. In those days practitioners were very secretive about their methods so you had to teach yourself. There is not one set recipe for marbling so different practitioners will use different methods.



  • Nevins, Iris, (1985) Traditional Marbling (Alembic Press), practical guide
  • Maurer, Diane Vogel, and Maurer, Paul, (1991) Marbling (J B Fairfax), practical guide
  • Schleicher, Patty, and Schleicher, Mimi, (1993) Marbled Designs (Lark Books), practical guide
  • Medeiros, Wendy Addison, (1994) Marbling Techniques (Watson Guptill), practical guide
  • Schmoller, Tanya, (2008) The Schmoller Collection of Decorated Papers (MMU), descriptive with some history
  • Wolfe, Richard J, (1973) Marbled Paper (University of Pennsylvania Press), as above
  • Loring, Rosamund B, (1973) Decorated Book Papers (The Harvard College Library), as above
  • Wolfe, Richard J, (2009) The Mysterious Marbler (Oak Knoll Books), historical
  • Haptmann, Joseph, The Art of Marbling (Atelier de Distelkamp), historical
  • Easton, Phoebe Jane, Marbling a History and a bibliography (Los Angeles: Dawson’s Book Shop), encyclopaedic
  • Loring, Rosamund, (2007) Marbled and Paste Papers, Rosamund Loring’s Recipe Book (Harvard College Library), historical
  • Chambers, Anne, (1991) Suminagashi, The Japanese Art of Marbling (Thames and Hudson, practical guide
  • Chambers, Anne, (1986) Marbling Paper, the Practical Guide (Thames and Hudson), practical guide
  • Miura, Einen, (1989) The Art of Marbled Paper (Zahensdorf Ltd), practical guide
  • Patricia Lovett (2015) Marbling paper
  • Bedfordshire County Council, The Art of the Marbler (film)
  • The Folio Society, The Art of Marbling (film)
  • Scott, Freya (2020) Marbling: Practical Modern Techniques (Schiffer Publishing)
  • McGrath, Lucy (2019) Contemporary Paper Marbling: Design and Technique (Pavilion Books)
  • Kate Brett (2021) Traditional Marbled Papers (Crowood Press)