Select Page

The HCA Red List of Endangered Crafts


Bagpipe making (Northumbrian pipes, smallpipes and bellows blown pipes)


The making of bagpipes; a musical instrument with a double or single reed pipe operated by finger stops and sometimes keys, and usually with one or more drone pipes, all of them sounded by air forced with the arm from a bag. The bag can be inflated using the mouth or bellows.

This category includes Northumbrian pipes, border pipes, pastoral pipes, Scottish smallpipes and the Uilleann pipe. See also Bagpipes (Highland pipes).

This craft uses products derived from animals and exotic hardwoods – please read our ethical sourcing statement.


Status Endangered
Craft category Instruments
Historic area of significance There are many different traditions of bagpipes in Europe and the Middle East.

The Bagpipe Society has a listing of countries where bagpipes are found

Area currently practised UK
Origin in the UK Unclear, but the first bagpipes in Scotland are recorded in 1400. The first written record in England is 1285.
Current no. of professionals (main income) 11-20
Current no. of professionals (sideline to main income)

(There are around 10 part-time makers of Northumbrian Pipes)

Current no. of trainees 0
Current total no. serious amateur makers
Small number of makers at the top end of the hobby range, making one or two sets a year.
Current total no. of leisure makers
Minimum no. of craftspeople required



The origin of bagpipe making in the UK is unclear. What is certain, however, is that bagpipes have existed in various forms in Europe and the Middle East. They were known to be widely spread across Europe from the 13th Century and are first recorded in Scotland in 1400. The earliest written reference in England is 1285.

In each country the construction of the basic instrument comprises the same component parts; an air supply, a bag with a chanter and usually with one or more drones. Pipes are inflated with air blown through a pipe (as with the Great Highland Bagpipes) or by the use of bellows as with the Irish uilleann pipes, pastoral pipes,  the border or lowland pipes, Scottish smallpipes and Northumbrian smallpipes.

The name bagpipe has now become synonymous with the Great Highland Bagpipe, which has somewhat overshadowed other bagpipes.

The 1980s in Europe saw a significant increase in interest in other regional pipes, particularly bellows blown pipes that are quieter and more suitable to indoor use. This has, in turn, stimulated a revival in makers recreating and relearning bagpipe making skills. From the 1990s in the UK, pipemakers like Jon Swayne and Julian Goodacre have led a revival in recreating historical pipes including English Border pipes, the Cornish double pipe and the Leicestershire smallpipe.


Northumbrian Pipes

The current form of the pipes was developed by makers in Newcastle-on-Tyne and North Shields towards the end of the 18th century, when the addition of chanter keys extended the melodic range of the chanter beyond an octave. This allowed pipers to explore the fiddle repertoire as well as the older pipe tunes of the region. Playing tunes with different key signatures required a variety of drone tunings which led to: the addition of more drones; stoppers to turn off those which conflicted with the melody; and tuning beads to widen the selection of pitches.



  • Woodwork
  • Reed Making
  • Leather work
  • Cover making
  • Metalwork
  • Bellows making


Local forms

There are several types of bagpipe traditional to the UK, including:

  • Highland pipes (Great Highland Bagpipes)
  • Northumbrian smallpipe
  • Northumbrian Half Long Pipes
  • Northumbrian Shuttle Pipes
  • Uilleann pipe – Irish bellows blown pipes
  • Border pipe
  • Scottish smallpipe
  • Pastoral pipe

A number of regional bagpipes have been recreated from historical texts and illustrations. These include:

  • Leicestershire smallpipe
  • Cornish double pipe
  • Welsh bagpipe



  • Bag making
  • Reed making
  • Bellows making


Issues affecting the viability of the craft

  • Training and recruitment: Bagpipes makers, excluding the main Great Highland Pipe making companies, are largely self-taught and there are no opportunities for formal training
  • Skills: There are a lot of different skills necessary for making bagpipes including wood work, leather work, metal work and reed making. It is challenging to become skilled in all these areas.
  • Market issues: From the playing perspective, these pipes have never been stronger, both in numbers and quality of musicians. However, pipes are frequently a lifetime purchase and buying a new set now is much more difficult than it was a few years ago.
  • Market issues: there is a growing market in the UK but also internationally, which has led to makers starting up in North America, Australia and Northern Europe
  • Market issues: the bigger manufacturers are starting to make small pipes, which could affect individual businesses in the future but does also demonstrate the increase in demand.
  • Selling overseas: Some overseas markets are now difficult to access due to additional costs and paperwork. It is also difficult to accept pipes back from overseas for servicing and renovation due to import duty.
  • Sourcing raw materials: Legislation to protect exotic timbers and other materials can be challenging for a small business.


Support organisations


Craftspeople currently known

A list of bagpipe makers and suppliers can be found on the Bagpipe Society’s website.

Border pipes, Scottish smallpipes, Lowland pipes, Uilleann pipes and other pipes:


  • Lawrence Thomson – pipe bag and bellows maker
  • Mark Bennett – bag maker
  • Iain McLeod – bellows maker

Northumbrian pipe Makers

There are no full time makers of Northumbrian Pipes, making them one of the most endangered forms of bagpipe.

  • Andy May
  • Dave Shaw
  • Kim Bull
  • Philip Gruar
  • Paul Tabbush
  • Andy Lawrenson ( primarily repairs and maintenance)
  • Nigel Barlow
  • Andrew Davison
  • John Burke
  • Dave McQuade


Other information