The cutting and sewing of cloth to make clothing.
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The knowledge and art of tailoring – of cutting and sewing cloth – developed slowly and gradually in Europe between the twelfth and fourteenth centuries. The Oxford English Dictionary’s first reference to the word “tailor” gives the specific date of 1297; and certainly by that date tailoring guilds, as well as those of weavers, and cloth merchants were well established in Europe.
In the Middle Ages clothing was regarded as a means of concealing the body. But with the Renaissance came the accentuation of the human form and the loose robe of the medieval period, made from one or two pieces of cloth, was shortened and tightened, and eventually cut, pieced, and sewn together in attempts to bring into prominence the contours of the human form. This was the birth of tailoring.
These attempts at re-constructing the human body in fabric called for a growing expert skill and division of labour. Soon the cutter (the one who makes the pattern) and tailor (the one who does the sewing) joined other craftsmen as important members of the community. Until this time the cloth had been the distinguishing feature of garments, and the wearer took most of the responsibility for the design and, in most cases, the actual production of his own clothes. But little by little, the tailor took on equal importance with the weaver, and gradually came to overshadow him. Master tailors in the growing towns eventually became responsible for the clothing needs of society, and the art and science of tailoring became a highly specialised, complex, and jealously guarded craft.
The past hundred years have seen huge changes in fashion and the art of tailoring: sewing machines have hugely sped up production, new fabric technology has history produced more comfortable cloths; and fashions have adapted to more leisurely, climate-controlled lifestyles. But tailoring is still, and likely to remain so, an art.
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