The Radcliffe Red List of Endangered Crafts

 

Fan making

 

The making of fans, traditionally with wooden sticks (montures) and painted paper leaves.

 

Status Critically endangered
Craft category Paper
Historic area of significance
Area currently practised
Origin in the UK
Minimum no. of craftspeople required
Current no. of trainees 1
Current no. of skilled craftspeople 1
Current total no. of craftspeople 3 (see ‘Craftspeople currently known’ for further information)

 

History

Fan makingFans are believed to date from around 3000BC, and were found in both Europe and the Far East. The earliest fans were fixed rather than folding. It is believed that the folding fan was developed in Japan and spread west to China. The first European folding fans were inspired by those brought back from the Far East and were reserved for royalty and the nobility. A fan consists of two parts: the monture (sticks and guards) and the leaf (the paper). Montures at this time were made from luxury materials such as ivory, mother of pearl and tortoiseshell, often carved and pierced and ornamented with silver, gold and precious stones. The leaves were painted by craftsmen (Fan Museum).

At the start of the seventeenth century, the fixed fan was still the norm in Europe, but by the end of the century folding fans had taken over. By the start of the eighteenth century folding fans were made throughout Europe and also imported from the Far East. At this time, the printed fan was also developed – these were much cheaper to make, and fans suddenly became accessible to a much wider audience. In the nineteenth century, brisé fans and printed fans dominated the cheaper end of the market, while the high end market was dominated by extremely lavish fans. The early twentieth century was dominated by advertising fans and feather fans for high society (Fan Museum).

Today, the fan is no longer a vital accessory, but commemorative fans are still produced for special occasions.

See the Fan Museum website for a detailed history of the fan.
Types of fan

  • Fixed fan
  • Folding fan: consisting of a pleated leaf, usually paper, fixed to sticks.
  • Brisé fan: consisting of the sticks only with no leaf, often joined at the top by a ribbon.
  • Cocade fan: opens all the way round like a lollipop.
  • Fontage fan: a folding fan used for advertising.

Victoria Ajoku teaching a fan-making workshop. Photo: Victoria Ajoku

 

Techniques

Historically the labour to make a fan was divided: stick assemblers, paper folders, fan painters

 

Local forms

 

Sub-crafts

 

Issues affecting the viability of the craft

  • Changing tastes: Fans are no longer the must-have accessories they once were, and so there is very little demand.
  • Market issues: Fans are no longer the must-have accessories they once were, and so there is very little demand and it is very difficult to make a living from fan making.
  • Funding issues: The Fan Museum in Greenwich plays a vital role in supporting the craft of fan making but receives no funding from government, and struggles to cover the costs of materials for the fan making workshops it runs.
  • Training issues: The Fan Museum in Greenwich runs monthly fan making workshops (six participants per class) but materials and tools are limited.

 

Support organisations

 

Craftspeople currently known

  • Caroline Allington – highly skilled fan maker, making for over 25 years.
  • Victoria Adjoku – is learning the craft from Caroline Allington, joined the Fan Museum specifically to learn the craft.
  • There is also a fan conservator.

 

Other information

 

References